Commit 0ddd32a0 authored by Jorge Suárez de Lis's avatar Jorge Suárez de Lis 💭

Ooops, fixed markdown

parent d7d0562f
...@@ -205,7 +205,7 @@ Traditionally, *init* is the first process started after the kernel is loaded an ...@@ -205,7 +205,7 @@ Traditionally, *init* is the first process started after the kernel is loaded an
Until mid 2000s, the most common init system was *SysV init*, mimicking the behaviour of the ancient UNIX System V init. While *upstart* is still the default for some Ubuntu-based distributions, all of them are being replaced by *Systemd*, which actually trespasses the responsabilities of an init system and makes the Unix advocates cry inconsolably. Until mid 2000s, the most common init system was *SysV init*, mimicking the behaviour of the ancient UNIX System V init. While *upstart* is still the default for some Ubuntu-based distributions, all of them are being replaced by *Systemd*, which actually trespasses the responsabilities of an init system and makes the Unix advocates cry inconsolably.
Init systems output is masked to the final user in distributions like *Ubuntu* or *Fedora* using **Plymouth**. Original output can be shown by pressing <key>ESC</key> at boot time or modifying boot params in the bootloader. Init systems output is masked to the final user in distributions like *Ubuntu* or *Fedora* using **Plymouth**. Original output can be shown by pressing <kbd>ESC</kbd> at boot time or modifying boot params in the bootloader.
#### SysV Init #### SysV Init
...@@ -428,7 +428,7 @@ Install a Linux distribution is an easy and straightforward task in some distrib ...@@ -428,7 +428,7 @@ Install a Linux distribution is an easy and straightforward task in some distrib
#### Storage devices and partitions #### Storage devices and partitions
The operative system is usually installed in a internal hard drive, but can also be installed on removable devices. Most installers require you to specify -or confirm at least- the disk partitions, since that would probably wipe all your data. The operative system is commonly installed in a internal hard drive, but can also be installed on removable devices. Most installers require you to specify -or confirm at least- the disk partitions, since that would probably wipe all your data.
The storage devices including hard disks, pendrives and memory cards are typically accessed through `/dev/sdx` being `x` a letter starting with `a`. In some virtual environments, the naming could be `/dev/vdx`. Some storage devices connected to some other buses could receive other names. The storage devices including hard disks, pendrives and memory cards are typically accessed through `/dev/sdx` being `x` a letter starting with `a`. In some virtual environments, the naming could be `/dev/vdx`. Some storage devices connected to some other buses could receive other names.
...@@ -578,7 +578,7 @@ To go back to the previous working directory use `cd -`. ...@@ -578,7 +578,7 @@ To go back to the previous working directory use `cd -`.
### Be a Bash Hacker ### Be a Bash Hacker
To use the output of a command as an argument for other command, you can enclose some parts in `\`\``, or '$()'. To use the output of a command as a part of other command, you can enclose some parts in `\`\``, or '$()'.
``` ```
jorge.suarez@ctdesk095:~$ vim $(which firefox) jorge.suarez@ctdesk095:~$ vim $(which firefox)
...@@ -707,7 +707,7 @@ To measure **disk performance** in terms of latency and input/output operations ...@@ -707,7 +707,7 @@ To measure **disk performance** in terms of latency and input/output operations
# ioping -q -c 10 / # ioping -q -c 10 /
``` ```
TODO: iperf? To measure **network performance** in terms of throughput, you can use `iperf`. *Iperf* allows the user to set various parameters that can be used for testing a network, or alternatively for optimizing or tuning a network.
#### Text processing with sed and awk #### Text processing with sed and awk
...@@ -799,17 +799,17 @@ tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:22 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN ...@@ -799,17 +799,17 @@ tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:22 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN
... ...
``` ```
#### Network diagnostic #### Network diagnostics
To test network routes, you can use **traceroute** or **mtr** where available. *Mtr* is interactive and has more features. To test network routes, you can use **traceroute** or **mtr** where available. *Mtr* is interactive and has more features.
#### The art of logs #### Learn to look in the logs
System logs are stored on `/var/log` and are usually on plain text. However, to save space, logs are rotated and usually commpressed by **logrotate**. System logs are stored on `/var/log` and are usually on plain text. However, to save space, logs are rotated and usually commpressed by **logrotate**.
Use `tail -f` to see the last output of a logfile. New lines will be shown. If you want more context, you can specify the number of old lines you want to see: `tail -n 200 -f`. Use `tail -f` to see the last output of a logfile. New lines will be shown. If you want more context, you can specify the number of old lines you want to see: `tail -n 200 -f`.
Use `less` (or `more` in more restricted environments) to navigate through the file interactively. You can make less scroll forward like `tail -f` pressing <key>Shift</key>+<key>F</key> at any time. Use `less` (or `more` in more restricted environments) to navigate through the file interactively. You can make less scroll forward like `tail -f` pressing <kbd>Shift</kbd>+<kbd>F</kbd> at any time.
To handle compressed files, you can use `zless` and `zcat`. These files won't grow, so a gzip-aware version of `tail` is not needed. To handle compressed files, you can use `zless` and `zcat`. These files won't grow, so a gzip-aware version of `tail` is not needed.
...@@ -868,7 +868,7 @@ nohup: ignoring input and appending output to ‘nohup.out’ ...@@ -868,7 +868,7 @@ nohup: ignoring input and appending output to ‘nohup.out’
To open a new Screen session (or reattach, if already exists), run `screen -a -R`. To open a new Screen session (or reattach, if already exists), run `screen -a -R`.
To dettach from a Screen session without losing it, press <key>Control</key>+<key>A</key>+<key>D</key>. You can reattach to it later by running `screen -a -R`. To dettach from a Screen session without losing it, press <kbd>Control</kbd>+<kbd>A</kbd>+<kbd>D</kbd>. You can reattach to it later by running `screen -a -R`.
When using screen, once dettached, you can disconnect from the server at any time. Screen is automatically dettached from the running shell, so it's not killed. When using screen, once dettached, you can disconnect from the server at any time. Screen is automatically dettached from the running shell, so it's not killed.
...@@ -894,7 +894,7 @@ To see the `Firefox` window, attaching to the display 100. ...@@ -894,7 +894,7 @@ To see the `Firefox` window, attaching to the display 100.
$ xpra attach :100 $ xpra attach :100
``` ```
To dettach without killing Firefox, instead of closing the Firefox window, press <key>Control</key>+<key>C</key> in the terminal to kill the `xpra attach`. To dettach without killing Firefox, instead of closing the Firefox window, press <kbd>Control</kbd>+<kbd>C</kbd> in the terminal to kill the `xpra attach`.
To be able to see windows remotely, you still need to enable the *X Forwarding*, that is, connect using `ssh -X`. To be able to see windows remotely, you still need to enable the *X Forwarding*, that is, connect using `ssh -X`.
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